Kaivalya (Liberation, Transcendental state of Absolute Indepenence)
1. WHAT IS KAIVALYA
Kaivalya (perfect independence) comes when the Gunas (qualities, sattva-ragas-tamas), devoid of motive, become latent. Or the power of consciousness gets established in its own nature.
The Gunas act for the enjoyment of the Purusha (The Supreme Being, Brahman). As soon as the Purusha realises His own native state of isolation, the Gunas, having fulfilled the object, cease to act. Their effects, the various modifications of Gunas, get Laya or involution. They merge into their causes. Nothing remains for the Purusha to cognise. This does not mean that the universe has come to an end. The world continues to exist as usual for those who have not attained Kaivalya. The senses ( Indriyas) are drawn into the mind, the mind into the Mahat (the cosmic or divine mind), and the Mahat into the Purusha (Brahman).
2. MEANS FOR KAIVALYA
On the equality of purity between Purusha and Sattva (Sattva' means here intellect) comes Kaivalya (perfect independence).
Perfection is attained when the intellect becomes as pure as the Atman itself. When the soul realises that it is absolutely independent and it does not depend on anything else in this world, this highest knowledge, Kaivalya, Isolation or perfect independence comes in. The soul feels that it is ever free, unchanging, immortal, beginningless, endless, infinite, beyond time, space and causation, full of bliss, peace and knowledge.
When the intellect or Sattva (Sattva' means here intellect) is rendered as pure as the Purusha, when it loses all consciousness of action on its own part, then its purity is said to be equal to that of the Purusha. The intellect or Sattva is annihilated. Purusha only remains free in His native, pristine divine glory. 'Sattva' means here intellect.
Purusha is reflected in intellect. Sattva is the cause for knowledge and Ahamkara*. The intellect attains the same state as that of Purusha when it becomes absolutely pure and when it remains motionless and when all its functions and activities stop completely.
Ahamkara*:Egoism or self-conceit; the self-arrogating principle ‘I’, ‘I am’-ness; self-consciousness. Rajasika ahamkara: Dynamic egoism with passion and pride. Sattvika ahamkara: Egoism composed in the sense of goodness and virtue. Tamasika ahamkara: Egoism as expressed in ignorance and inertia.
Ahamkara-avacchinna-chaitanya: Intelligence associated with egoism which is the migrating soul, Jivatman.
Ahamkara-tyaga: Renunciation of egoism.